Historically, your social security number is a number registered under the Social Security Act (Cap. 318.) through which you pay social security contributions. The social security contributions paid will entitle you for the social security benefits provided under the Social Security Act (Cap. 318.), subject to the entitlement conditions which exist for each type of benefit. You can find more information on the categories and amount of social security contributions employees and self-employed/self-occupied persons need to pay here.
As of October 2016, the social security number was removed for permanent Maltese I.D. card holders (with letters M, L, G, H) and will only be used for people that are not in possession of a permanent Maltese I.D. card. Nevertheless, those minors who are still students under 16 years of age and are in possession of a Maltese I.D. card (14+) but would like to work on temporary basis, are obliged to register for a social security number if the final compulsory scholastic year has not been completed.
The Social Security Act (Cap. 318.), provides that every person who is in a Maltese insurable employment between the age of 16 and 65 is to be insured, and this is automatically achieved when the person pays the social security contributions in Malta. Such a mandatory requirement renders every insured person eligible to claiming and receiving contributory social security benefits, including a retirement pension, subject to satisfying the minimum conditions of the benefit.